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Welcome to Valparai - The Alluring Nature. Wild & Wonderful.

About Valparai Tourism

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We at Valparai Tourism managed by a team of young entrepreneurs with vast experience. Our moto is to bring in large amounts of income into a local economy in the form of payment for goods and services needed by tourists for this we are committed to deliver premium packaging services in Valparai, also to create opportunities for employment in the service sector of the economy associated with tourism. We want to help the people of Valparai to do more, feel better and live longer. Today still there are hundreds of people without access to baisc healthcare, education, amenities and more people who suffer from everyday aliments. At Valparai we want to change this.

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Although our team has a wide breadth of experience, we will supplement this with additional expertise and capacity when required and frequently work with other consultancies. We have developed a close working relationship with professionals in parallel disciplines, including architects, conservation planners, interpreters, and economic analysts. We also regularly commission visitor surveys, focus groups and other targeted research from teams who work to our brief. We have developed close contacts with the tourism industry and with colleague consultants and professionals in many cities in India, through our involvement with the tourism industry.

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We believe in the philosophy and treating every customer with equal respect and professionalism. Our strong commitment to quality of the services we offer has got us appreciation galore from our clients. Due to our dedication towards our work and sincere efforts, we have been able to establish a relationship of trust with our customers.

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People visiting Valparai for the first time approach us to assist them in commuting in the various parts of Valparai. We at Valparai Tourism pick them up from their desire location and help them to get acquainted with the city during their stay. We help our customers to visit all the places without any restrictions. If you would like a tour that is tailored exactly like the way you want it, you found the right company. Send us a request and we would be happy to assist or if this is your first time to Valparai and you want a designed-by-experts tour to make the most of your time, without all the thinking and planning, have a look at some our all-time popular and available itineraries in our Packages Section. Check out our Gallery page for some of the awesome sights you may get to see on our tours as well!

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Places to visit in and around Valparai

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Koozhangal (Pebble) River

Koozhangal (Pebble) River, Valparai

Koozhangal River is one of the most exciting and the most preferred tourist spot in Valparai. Slow-flowing, Shallow River known for its pebble stone bottom amid verdant, grassy surrounds. The pebbles seen in the bank of the river and the zigzag shape of the river are spectacular.

Sholayar Dam

Sholayar Dam, Valparai

The Sholayar (சோழையார்) dam is supposed to the second deepest dam in Asia, but it is not this feature of the dam that strikes the most. Rather, it is the sheer size of the dam that astonishes.

Generally, one does not get a real perspective of the dam’s size as our view is limited to one entrance or at most one side of the dam. However, the Sholayar dam is very different. In the case of this reservoir, one can drive around its entire length and breadth. In fact, the road from Valparai to Athirapally falls provides stunning views of this massive water body.

The Sholayar dam is actually split into two reservoirs. One is called the Upper Sholayar dam, which we tourists have access to and the other deep in the forests is called the lower Sholayar Dam. It is the combined waters of the Sholayar and the downstream Parambikulam reservoir in Kerala that provide water to India’s Niagara – the famous Athirapally Falls.

The Sholayar Dam is situated about 20 kilometres from the hilly town of Valparai, but the reservoir waters start very close to the town itself. In fact, it criss-crosses a large area from near the town to the actual dam setting. Most of its banks are decorated with tea gardens. The ones which are not are decorated by evergreen forests.

In terms of tourist infrastructure, there is not much, but the people can enjoy a good picnic near its banks, enjoy its beauty while driving through the winding roads that connect Valparai to Chalakudy or stand right below the dam walls and enjoy the water gushing out from the open sluice gates

The Sholayar Dam is part of the Sholayar Hydroelectric Project (HEP). The project is comprises the main Sholayar Dam, the Sholayar Flanking, and the Sholayar Saddle Dam. Special permission is required to visit the dam.

This dam is a vital reservoir under the Parambikulam Aliyar Project and has a water storage capacity of 160 ft. The reservoir's overflowing waters are let into the Parambikulam Reservoir through the saddle dam.

Sholayar Dam was officially opened in 1965, the Sholayar Flanking was built in 1964 and the Sholayar Saddle Dam in 1965.

The area of the reservoir is 8.705 square km. The height of the main dam is 66 metres; its width is 430 metres, and length 430.60 metres. The Sholayar Flanking has a height of 28 metres and width of 19 metres. The Sholayar Saddle Dam is 259 metres high and 109 metres wide.

Chinna Kallar Waterfall

Chinna Kallar Waterfall, Valparai

Chinna Kallar is geographically an important place in India. It is known as Cherrapunji of Tamilnadu and one of the top 5 wettest places of India.

A hanging bridge built across the river by which you have to walk to reach this place is full of enchantment and thrill. This area is always found wet and misty. A small dam followed shortly by a beautiful roaring waterfall in the dense jungle of Anamalai ranges. One must visit this place when in Valparai. Wild animals like Indian Bison, Elephants and sometimes Leopards frequent this place for water.

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Spices and Plantation crops of Valparai

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Tea

Tea of Valparai

Daily a cup of tea may improve your health.
No matter what the season, teas of Valparai can be a tasty beverage since it can be served iced or hot. But its benefits go far beyond refreshment. There is plenty of research showing that drinking tea can actually improve your health. At the very least, it’s a flavourful way of getting enough fluid into your body each day. On top of that, studies have shown teas can help protect your teeth and your heart, as well as possibly even helping to stave off cancer.

Which type of tea you drink can make a difference. All non-herbal teas are made from the leaves of the Camellia sinensis plant. The amount of time the leaves are processed determines whether you end up with a green, black or White tea.

Possible Health Benefits of Tea.
• Tea contains antioxidants
• Tea has less caffeine than coffee
• Tea may help with weight loss
• Tea may help protect your bones
• Tea may keep your smile bright
• Tea may boost the immune system
• Tea may help battle cancer
• Herbal tea may soothe the digestive system
• Tea - unadulterated, that is calorie free

Types of Tea
Black Tea
The tea that are produced by complete fermentation process and that appears black / brown in colour are referred to as black tea. The majority of teas produced are of this kind.

Green Tea
These type of teas are produced by bypassing the fermentation step. The oxidizing enzymes are killed/denatured by steam blasting the freshly plucked leaf in perforated trays or by roasting it in hot iron pan. The steaming is carried out for less than a minute. The leaf is then subjected to further heating and rolling until it turns dark green. The leaves are finally dried to moisture content of 3 to 4 percent. As the fermentation is arrested by the inactivation of polyphenol oxidase, the polyphenols are not oxidised and the leaves remain green. The beverage gives a weak flavour than black tea due to the absence of theaflavins and thearubigins.

White Tea
White teas are whole withered teas of which the buds and leaves are covered with white hairy growth. First infusion of the teas is almost colourless, and the phenolic substances are slightly oxidised and poorly polymerized. These teas are made in two steps of withering and drying.

Coffee

Coffee of Valparai

A cup of coffee in the morning may pack more than just an energy boost.
More and more research is emerging to suggest that there may be several health benefits associated with drinking this dark black beverage, from helping prevent diabetes to lowering the risk of liver disease.

The consumption of coffee goes back centuries. In 17th century England the popularity of the drink gave rise to a number of coffee houses which were dubbed 'penny universities', because with one penny a person could buy a cup of coffee and have intellectually stimulating conversations with other people. Nowadays, with over 400 billion cups consumed every year, coffee is one of the world's most popular drinks. But what makes it special?

Possible Health Benefits of Taking Coffee
• Cuts the pain
• Increase your fiber intake
• Protection against cirrhosis of the liver
• Lowered risk of type 2 diabetes
• Lowered risk of alzheimer’s disease
• Reduces suicide risk and depression
• Protection against parkinson’s
• Coffee drinkers have less risk of heart disease.
• Lower risk of multiple sclerosis.
• Coffee reduces colorectal cancer risk.

Black Pepper

Black Pepper of Valparai

From the Piperaceae family, the black pepper plant is a trailing, woody vine that grows in tropical climates. After a few years, it bears tiny white blossoms that become berries known as peppercorns. For black peppercorns, the berries are picked before full maturity and turn dark when dried. Variations of green and white peppercorns are obtained by choosing different stages at which to pick the berries.

This is the same spice that, in centuries past, spawned battles, launched voyages, and became one of the signs by which men judged other men’s wealth. Today, we get to simply buy it at the supermarket, exported from India and Indonesia, the largest producers. Available whole, crushed, or ground into powder, many households use a hand-held mill for grinding their own peppercorns, which have an almost indefinite shelf life, to get the freshest product. Ground pepper retains its optimum freshness for about three months, and is sometimes “adulterated” with something other than black pepper, fresh or otherwise. Freshly ground pepper turns vinegar and oil dressing – or any dressing for that matter – into a work of culinary art. When cooking, use it at the last moment to retain the full flavour of the essential oils.

Possible Health Benefits of Black Pepper
• Black pepper increases nutrient absorption
• Black pepper improves digestion
• Black pepper stimulates appetite
• Black pepper relieves gas
• Black pepper helps clear congestion
• Black pepper combats arthritis
• Black pepper fights cancer and prevents other diseases
• Black pepper works as a natural antidepressant
• Black pepper treats teeth and gum problems

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Wildlife in Valparai

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The Indian Elephant

Indian Elephant, Wildlife of Valparai, Anamalai Tiger Reserve

The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant and native to mainland Asia. Since 1986, Elephas maximus has been listed as Endangered by IUCN as the population has declined by at least 50% over the last 60 to 75 years or three generations. Asian elephants are threatened by habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation.

In general, Asian elephants are smaller than African elephants and have the highest body point on the head. The tip of their trunk has one finger-like process. Their back is convex or level. Indian elephants reach a shoulder height of between 2 and 3.5 m (6.6 and 11.5 ft), weigh between 2,000 and 5,000 kg (4,400 and 11,000 lb), and have 19 pairs of ribs. Their skin color is lighter than of maximus with smaller patches of depigmentation, but darker than of sumatranus. Females are usually smaller than males, and have short or no tusks.

The largest Indian elephant was 3.43 metres (11.3 ft) high at the shoulder. In 1985, two large elephant bulls were spotted for the first time in Bardia National Park, and named Raja Gaj and Kanchha. They roamed the park area together and made occasional visits to the females. Raja Gaj stood 11.3 ft (3.4 m) tall at the shoulder and had a massive body weight. His appearance has been compared to that of a mammoth due to his high bi-domed shaped head. His forehead and domes were more prominent than in other Asian bull elephants.

Indian elephants have smaller ears, but relatively broader skulls and larger trunks than African elephants. Toes are large and broad. Unlike their African cousins, their abdomen is proportionate with their body weight but the African elephant has a large abdomen as compared to the skulls.

The Lion - Tailed Macque

Lion - Tailed Macque, Wildlife of Valparai, Anamalai Tiger Reserve

The lion-tailed macaque, or the wanderoo, is an Old World monkey endemic to the Western Ghats of South India.

The hair of the lion-tailed macaque is black. Its outstanding characteristic is the silver-white mane which surrounds the head from the cheeks down to its chin, which gives this monkey its German name Bartaffe - "beard ape". The hairless face is black in colour. With a head-body length of 42 to 61 cm and a weight of 2 to 10 kg, it ranks among the smaller macaques. The tail is medium in length at about 25 cm, and has a black tuft at the end that is similar to a lion's tail, although this tuft is more pronounced in males than in females.

Gestation is approximately six months. The young are nursed for one year. Sexual maturity is reached at four years for females, and six years for males. The life expectancy in the wild is approximately 20 years, while in captivity is up to 30 years.

The lion-tailed macaque is a diurnal rainforest dweller. It is a good climber and spends a majority of its life in the upper canopy of tropical moist evergreen forests. Unlike other macaques, it avoids humans. In group behavior, it is much like other macaques; it lives in hierarchical groups of usually 10 to 20 animals, which consist of few males and many females. It is a territorial animal, defending its area first with loud cries towards the invading troops. If this proves to be fruitless, it brawls aggressively.

Lion-tailed macaque behaviour is characterized by typical patterns such as arboreal living, selectively feeding on a large variety of fruit trees, large interindividual spaces while foraging, and time budgets with high proportion of time devoted to exploration and feeding. It primarily eats indigenous fruits, leaves, buds, insects and small vertebrates in virgin forest, but can adapt to rapid environmental change in areas of massive selective logging through behavioural modifications and broadening of food choices to include fruits, seeds, shoots, pith, flowers, cones, mesocarp, and other parts of many nonindigenous and pioneer plants. In the forests of Kerala they were observed preying on nestling and eggs of pigeons.

Malabar Giant Squirrel

Malabar Giant Squirrel, Wildlife of Valparai, Anamalai Tiger Reserve

The Indian giant squirrel, or Malabar giant squirrel, (Ratufa indica) is a large tree squirrel species genus Ratufa native to India. It is a large-bodied diurnal, arboreal, and mainly herbivorous squirrel found in South Asia.

Malabar Giant Squirrel has a conspicuous two-toned (and sometimes three-toned) color scheme. The colors involved can be creamy-beige, buff, tan, rust, brown, or even a dark seal brown. The underparts and the front legs are usually cream colored, the head can be brown or beige, however there is a distinctive white spot between the ears. Adult head and body length varies around 36 cm and the tail length is approximately 2 ft. Adult weight - 2 kg

The Malabar Giant Squirrel is an upper-canopy dwelling species, which rarely leaves the trees, and requires "tall profusely branched trees for the construction of nests." It travels from tree to tree with jumps of up to 20 Feet. When in danger, the often freezes or flattens itself against the tree trunk, instead of fleeing. Its main predators are the birds of prey and the leopard. The Giant Squirrel is mostly active in the early hours of the morning and in the evening, resting in the midday. They are typically solitary animals that only come together for breeding. The species is believed to play a substantial role in shaping the ecosystem of its habitat by engaging in seed dispersal. Diet includes fruit, flowers, nuts and tree bark. Some subspecies are omnivorous, also eating insects and bird eggs.

The Malabar Giant Squirrel lives alone or in pairs. They build large globular nests of twigs and leaves, placing them on thinner branches where large predators can't get to them. These nests become conspicuous in deciduous forests during the dry season. An individual may build several nests in a small area of forest which are used as sleeping quarters, with one being used as a nursery.

Captive breeding of the Malabar Giant Squirrel, a close relative has indicated births in March, April, September and December. The young weigh 74.5 g at birth and have a length of 27.3 cm. In Canara, the Malabar Giant Squirrel has been spotted with young in March

List of Wildlife you may Encounter

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Wings over Valparai

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Indian Peafowl

Indian Peafowl, Birds in Valparai, Anamalai Tiger Reserve

The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies. There are two Asiatic species: the blue or Indian peafowl originally of the Indian subcontinent; and the green peafowl of Southeast Asia; and one African species, the Congo peafowl, native only to the Congo Basin. Male peafowl are known for their piercing call and their extravagant plumage. The latter is especially prominent in the Asiatic species, who have an eye-spotted "tail" or "train" of covert feathers which they display as part of a courtship ritual. The term peacock is properly reserved for the male; the female is known as a peahen, and the immature offspring are sometimes called peachicks.

The functions of the elaborate iridescent coloration and large "train" of peacocks have been the subject of extensive scientific debate. Charles Darwin suggested they served to attract females, and the showy features of the males had evolved by sexual selection. More recently, Amotz Zahavi proposed in his handicap theory that these features acted as honest signals of the males' fitness, since less fit males would be disadvantaged by the difficulty of surviving with such large and conspicuous structures.

The Indian peacock has iridescent blue and green plumage, mostly metallic blue and green. But the green peacock has green and bronze body feathers. In both species females are as big as males but lack the train and the head ornament. The peacock "tail," known as a "train," consists not of tail quill feathers, but highly elongated upper tail coverts. These feathers are marked with eyespots, best seen when a peacock fans his tail. Both sexes of all species have a crest atop the head. The Indian peahen has a mixture of dull grey, brown, and green in her plumage. The female also displays her plumage to ward off female competition or signal danger to her young.

The green peafowl differs from the Indian peafowl in that the male has green and gold plumage and black wings with a sheen of blue. Unlike the Indian peafowl, the green peahen is similar to the male, only having shorter upper tail coverts, a more coppery neck, and overall less iridescence.

The Congo peacock male does not display his covert feathers, but uses his actual tail feathers during courtship displays. These feathers are much shorter than those of the Indian and green species, and the ocelli are much less pronounced. Females of the Indian and African species are dull grey and/or brown.

Chicks of both sexes in all the species are cryptically coloured. They vary between yellow and tawny, usually with patches of darker brown or light tan and "dirty white" ivory.

Occasionally, peafowl appear with white plumage. Although albino peafowl do exist, this is quite rare, and almost all white peafowl are not, in fact, albinos; they have a different condition called leucism, which causes an overall reduction in different types of pigment. This can result in the complete lack of coloration of their plumage, while preserving normal eye colour. By contrast, true albino peafowl have a complete lack of melanin, resulting in the albino's characteristic red or pink eyes. Leucistic peachicks are born yellow and become fully white as they mature.

As with many birds, vibrant iridescent plumage colours are not primarily pigments, but structural colouration. Optical interference Bragg reflections based on regular, periodic nanostructures of the barbules (fiber-like components) of the feathers produce the peacock's colours. Slight changes to the spacing of these barbules result in different colours. Brown feathers are a mixture of red and blue: one colour is created by the periodic structure and the other is created by a Fabry–Pérot interference peak from reflections from the outer and inner boundaries. Such structural coloration causes the iridescence of the peacock's hues. Interference effects depend on light angle rather than actual pigments.

Sexual selection is the ability of male and female organisms to exert selective forces on each other with regard to mating activity. The strongest driver of sexual selection is gamete size. In general, eggs are bigger than sperm and females produce fewer gametes than males. This leads to eggs being a bigger investment, and therefore to females being choosy about the traits that will be passed on to her offspring by males. The peahen's reproductive success and the likelihood of survival of her chicks is partly dependent on the genotype of the mate. Females generally have more to lose when mating with an inferior male due to her gametes being more costly than the male's.

Emerald Dove

Emerald Dove, Birds in Valparai, Anamalai Tiger Reserve

The common emerald dove, Asian emerald dove, or grey-capped emerald dove is a pigeon which is a widespread resident breeding bird in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Indian Subcontinent and east through Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, the Sakishima Islands of Japan and Indonesia. The dove is also known by the names of green dove and green-winged pigeon. The common emerald dove is the state bird of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. The Pacific emerald dove and Stephan's emerald dove were both considered conspecific.

This is a common species in rainforest and similar dense wet woodlands, farms, gardens, mangroves and coastal heaths. It builds a scant stick nest in a tree up to five metres and lays two cream-coloured eggs.

Its flight is fast and direct, with the regular beats and an occasional sharp flick of the wings which are characteristic of pigeons in general. It often flies low between the patches of dense forest it prefers, but when disturbed will frequently walk away rather than fly. They are particularly good weavers when flying through forests. When flying they expose a buff underwing and a chestnut colour of their flight feathers.

The common emerald dove is a stocky, medium-sized pigeon, typically 23 to 28 centimetres in length. The back and wings are bright emerald green. The flight feathers and tail are blackish, and broad black and white bars show on the lower back in flight. The head and underparts are dark vinous pink , fading to greyish on the lower belly. The eyes are dark brown, the bill bright red and legs and feet rufous.

The male has a white patch on the edge of the shoulders and a grey crown, which the female lacks. Females will tend to have a browner complexion with a grey mark on the shoulder. Immature birds resemble females but have brown scallops on their body and wing plumage.

Emerald doves usually occur singly, pairs or in small groups. They are quite terrestrial, often searching for fallen fruit on the ground and spending little time in trees except when roosting. They eat seeds and fruits of a wide variety of plants and are generally tame and approachable.

The call is a low soft moaning cooing consisting of about six to seven coos starting quietly and rising. They also call a nasal "hoo-hoo-hoon". Males perform a bobbing dance during courtship.

The Great Hornbill

The Great Hornbill, Birds in Valparai, Anamalai Tiger Reserve

The great Hornbill also known as the great Indian Hornbill or great pied Hornbill, is one of the larger members of the Hornbill family. It is found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. Its impressive size and colour have made it important in many tribal cultures and rituals. The great Hornbill is long-lived, living for nearly 50 years in captivity. It is predominantly frugivorous, but is an opportunist and will prey on small mammals, reptiles and birds.

The great Hornbill is a large bird, 95–130 cm long, with a 152 cm wingspan and a weight of 2.15–4 kg. It is the heaviest, but not the longest, Asian Hornbill. Females are smaller than males and have bluish-white instead of red eyes, although the orbital skin is pinkish. Like other Hornbills, they have prominent "eyelashes".

The most prominent feature of the Hornbill is the bright yellow and black casque on top of its massive bill. The casque appears U-shaped when viewed from the front, and the top is concave, with two ridges along the sides that form points in the front, whence the Latin species epithet bicornis. The back of the casque is reddish in females, while the underside of the front and back of the casque is black in males.

The casque is hollow and serves no known purpose, although it is believed to be the result of sexual selection. Male Hornbills have been known to indulge in aerial casque butting, with birds striking each other in flight. The male spreads the preen gland secretion, which is yellow, onto the primary feathers and bill to give them the bright yellow colour. The commissure of the beak is black and has a serrated edge which becomes worn with age.

The wing beats are heavy and the sound produced by birds in flight can be heard from a distance. This sound has been likened to the puffing of a steam locomotive starting up. The flight involves stiff flaps followed by glides with the fingers splayed and upcurled. They sometimes fly at great height over forests.

The species was formerly broken into subspecies cavatus, from the Western Ghats, and homrai, the nominate form from the sub-Himalayan forests. The subspecies from Sumatra was sometimes called cristatus. Variation across populations is mainly in size, Himalayan birds being larger than those from further south, and the species is now usually considered monotypic.

Like other members of the Hornbill family, they have highly pneumatized bones, with hollow air cavities extending to the tips of the wing bones. This anatomical feature was noted by Richard Owen, who dissected a specimen that died at the Zoological Society of London in 1833.

Great Hornbills are found in the forests of India, Bhutan, Nepal, Mainland Southeast Asia, Indonesian Island of Sumatra and North eastern region of India. The distribution of the species is fragmented over its range in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia. In the subcontinent they are found in a few forest areas in the Western Ghats and in the forests along the Himalayas. Their distribution extends into Thailand, Burma, Malaya, and Sumatra. A small feral population is found in Singapore. Their habitat is dense old growth (unlogged) forests in hilly regions. They appear to be dependent on large stretches of forest, unlike many of the smaller Hornbills.

In Thailand the home range of males was found to be about 3.7 km2 during the breeding season and about 14.7 km2 during the non-breeding season.

Food and feeding
Great Hornbills are usually seen in small parties, with larger groups sometimes aggregating at fruit trees. A congregation of 150 to 200 birds has been recorded in south-eastern Bhutan. In the wild, the great Hornbill's diet consists mainly of fruit. Figs are particularly important as a food source. Vitex altissima has been noted as another important food source. Great Hornbills also forage on lipid-rich fruits of the Lauraceae and Myristicaceae families such as Persea, Alseodaphne and Myristica. They obtain the water that they need entirely from their diet of fruits. They are important dispersers of many forest tree species. They will also eat small mammals, birds, small reptiles and insects. Lion-tailed macaques have been seen to forage alongside these Hornbills.

They forage along branches, moving along by hopping, looking for insects, nestling birds and small lizards, tearing up bark and examining them. Prey are caught, tossed in the air and swallowed. A rare squirrel, the Travancore flying squirrel has been eaten, and Indian scops owl, jungle owlet and Sri Lanka green pigeon have been taken as prey in the Western Ghats.

Breeding
During the breeding season (January to April) great Hornbills become very vocal. They make loud duets, beginning with a loud "kok" given about once a second by the male, to which the female joins in. The pair then calls in unison, turning into a rapid mixture of roars and barks. They prefer mature forests for nesting. Large, tall and old trees, particularly emergents that rise above the canopy, seem to be preferred for nesting. They form monogamous pair bonds and live in small groups of 2-40 individuals. Group courtship displays involving up to 20 birds have been observed.

The female Hornbill builds a nest in the hollow of a large tree trunk, sealing the opening with a plaster made up mainly of feces. She remains imprisoned there, relying on the male to bring her food, until the chicks are half developed. During this period the female undergoes a complete moult. The young chicks have no feathers and appear very plump. The mother is fed by her mate through a slit in the seal. The clutch consists of one or two eggs, which she incubates for 38–40 days. The female voids feces through the nest slit, as do the chicks from the age of two weeks. Once the female emerges from the nest, the chicks seal it again.

The young birds have no trace of a casque. After the second year the front extremity separates from the culmen, and in the third year it becomes a transverse crescent with the two edges growing outwards and upwards, while the anterior widens to the width of the rear end. Full development takes five years.

Roosting
Roost sites are used regularly and birds arrive punctually at sunset from long distances, following the same routes each day. Several tall trees in the vicinity may be used, the birds choosing the highest branches with little foliage. They jockey for position until late at dusk. When sleeping they draw their neck back and the bill is held upwards at an angle.

List of Endamics & Winter Visitors

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Sightseeing Packages of Valparai Tourism

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Package 1
Local Sightseeing Packages, Valparai
Details of this package
Places Covered : • Koozhangal River • Vellamalai Tunnel • Nallamudi Poonjolai Balaji Temple • Annai Velankanni Church & • Vellai Pilliyar Temple.

Duration   8 to 9 Hours
Pick-up Location   Valparai
Drop-off Location   Valparai

Price for this package
Vehicle Type Maximum
no of Persons
Cost
Maruthi Omni 7 ₹1,800.00
Tata Indica or Similar 4 ₹2,000.00
Chevrolet Tavera or Similar 9 ₹3,000.00

Package 2
Local Sightseeing Packages, Valparai
Details of this Package
Places Covered : • Upper Nirar Dam • Lower Nirar Dam • Nirar Dam Tunnel & • Chinna Kallar

Duration   6 to 7 Hours
Pick-up Location   Valparai
Drop-off Location   Valparai

Price for this package
Vehicle Type Maximum
no of Persons
Cost
Maruthi Omni 7 ₹1,800.00
Tata Indica or Similar 4 ₹2,000.00
Chevrolet Tavera or Similar 9 ₹3,000.00

Package 3
Local Sightseeing Packages, Valparai
Details of this package
Places Covered : • Sholayar Dam • Lower Sholayar Dam • Poringalkuthu • Vazhachal Waterfalls • Charpa Waterfalls & • Athirapally Waterfalls.

Duration   11 to 12 Hours
Pick-up Location   Valparai
Drop-off Location   Valparai or Athirapally

Price for this package
Vehicle Type Maximum
no of Persons
Cost
Maruthi Omni 7 ₹4,000.00
Tata Indica or Similar 4 ₹4,750.00
Chevrolet Tavera or Similar 9 ₹5,500.00

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Valparai Cottages Valparai Home Stay Valparai Hotels Cottages in Valparai Homestay in Valparai Home Stay in Valparai Hotels in Valparai Resorts in Valparai

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